Friday, December 28, 2007

Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster

The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster is the rocket that provides 83% of liftoff thrust for the Space Shuttle. It is the largest and most powerful solid rocket ever flown, and the most powerful rocket motor of any type ever flown. Each SRB produces 1.8 times the liftoff thrust of the F-1 engine used in the Saturn V moon rocket.

The two reusable SRBs provide the main thrust to lift the Space Shuttle off the pad and up to an altitude of about 150,000 feet . In addition, the two SRBs carry the entire weight of the external tank and orbiter and transmit the weight load through their structure to the mobile launcher platform. Each booster has a liftoff thrust of approximately 2,800,000 lbf at launch. They are ignited after the three space shuttle main engines' thrust level is verified. The two SRBs provide 83 % of the thrust at lift-off. Seventy five seconds after SRB separation, SRB apogee occurs at an altitude of approximately 220,000 feet , after which they land on parachutes; impact occurs in the ocean approximately 122 nautical miles downrange, after which the two are recovered.

Monday, December 17, 2007

Stock exchange

A stock exchange, share market or bourse is a corporation or mutual organization which provides services for stock brokers and traders, to trade company stocks and further securities. Stock exchanges also provide facilities for the issue and redemption of securities as well as other financial instruments and capital events as well as the payment of income and dividends. The securities traded on a stock exchange consist of: shares issued by companies, unit trusts and further pooled investment products and bonds. To be able to do business in security on a certain stock exchange, it has to be listed there. Trade on an exchange is made by members only. The initial offering of stocks and bonds to investors is by definition done in the primary market and subsequent trading is completed in the secondary market. A stock exchange is frequently the most important component of a stock market. Supply and demand in stock markets are determined by various factors which, as in all free markets, affect the price of stocks (see stock valuation).

Sunday, December 02, 2007

Art of Loving

According to Erich From, love is the most excellent reaction to the problem of human being. Love is the most satisfying accomplishment of humanity’s most powerful objective the desire of interpersonal union. Having a capability of grave thinking and self-awareness, humans realize their aloneness and separateness, their individuality and their short life span. The aspiration for interpersonal combination is the most powerful motivated in man. It is the most basic excitement; it is the force which keeps the human race together family, clan, society, nation, and world. As mentioned above, love, turns out to be the most fulfilling of all approach to go beyond limits of individual life. All forms of orgiastic unions are controlling and even violent; they are temporary and periodical. It is a union in which the individual self disappears to a large amount and where the aim is to belong to the group. There is orgiastic condition, which may have the form of sexual orgasm, alcohol, drugs and etc. Regrettably, equality today means similarity, rather that oneness. Orgiastic unions result in a rising sense of separateness. People try to be equal by performing tasks and feelings agreed by the system and trying to follow the similar rules, the same model of life from the age three or four. Union by consistency is calm and it is permanent.

Tuesday, November 13, 2007


Mobile phones and the network they operate under vary significantly from provider to provider, and nation to nation. However, all of them communicate through electromagnetic microwaves with a cell site base station, the antennas of which are usually mounted on a tower, pole, or building.

The phones have a low-power transceiver that transmits voice and data to the nearest cell sites, usually 5 to 8 miles away. When the cellular phone or data device is turned on, it registers with the mobile telephone exchange, or switch, with its unique identifiers, and will then be alerted by the mobile switch when there is an incoming telephone call. The handset constantly listens for the strongest signal being received from the surrounding base stations. As the user moves around the network, the mobile device will "handoff" to various cell sites during calls, or while waiting between calls it will reselect cell sites.

Cell sites have relatively low-power radio transmitters which broadcast their presence and relay communications between the mobile handsets and the switch. The switch in turn connects the call to another subscriber of the same wireless service provider or to the public telephone network, which includes the networks of other wireless carriers.

Monday, November 05, 2007

Aerial tramway

An aerial tramway is one or two set cables (called track cables), one endless loop of cable (called a haulage rope), and two passenger cabins. The fixed cables give support for the cabins. The haulage rope, by means of a grip, is solidly linked to the truck (the wheel set that rolls on the cables). The haulage rope is frequently driven by an electric motor and being connected to the cabins, moves them up or down the mountain.
Two-car tramways use a jig-back system: A large electric motor is situated at the bottom of the tramway so that it successfully pulls one cabin down, using that cabin's weight to help pull the extra cabin up. A similar system of cables is use in a funicular railway. The two passenger cabins, which carry from 4 to over 100 people, are positioned at opposite ends of the loops of cable. Thus, as one is coming up, the other is going down the mountain, and they pass each other midway on the cable span.
Some aerial trams have only one cabin, which lends itself better for systems with small altitude changes along the cable run.

Monday, October 29, 2007

water taxi

A water taxi or river taxi or aquatically disposed taxi is a boat used for public transportation in cities with plentiful water channels. Many cities, including New York City, Boston, Baltimore, Fort Lauderdale, Winnipeg, Vancouver, London, and Tokyo have planned water taxis that operate in a similar manner to ferries or buses. Others, like Venice, have for-hire boats like to traditional taxis. Venice also has a vaporetto or waterbus system that operates in the same way to American water taxis.
Water taxis also activate in cottage areas where some cottages are available only by water. Visitors can drive to a local marina and take a water taxi to the final purpose.On March 6, 2004, a "Seaport Taxi," a water taxi service operated by the Living Classrooms Foundation, capsized through a storm near Baltimore's Inner Harbor; 5 passengers died in the accident.

Wednesday, October 24, 2007


Chemistry is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, production mainly with collections of atoms, such as gases, molecules, crystals, and metals. Chemistry deals with the composition and statistical properties of such structures, as well as their transformations and interactions to become materials encountered in daily life. Chemistry also deals with sympathetic the properties and interactions of individual atoms with the purpose of applying that knowledge at the macroscopic level. According to contemporary chemistry, the physical properties of materials are usually determined by their structure at the atomic scale, which is itself defined by interatomic forces.

Monday, October 15, 2007

Computer printer

A computer printer, or more usually just a printer, is a device that produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. Many printers are primarily used as computer peripherals, and are permanently attached by a printer cable to a computer which serves as a text source. Other printers, commonly known as network printers, have built-in network interfaces (typically wireless or Ethernet), and can serve as a hardcopy device for any user on the network.

In addition, many modern printers can directly border to electronic media such as memory sticks or memory cards, or to image capture devices such as digital cameras, scanners; some printers are combined with a scanners and/or fax machines in a single unit.

Sunday, October 07, 2007

A Need for Welfare

There is an old joke that asked where you find a welfare recipient’s check under his work boots of course. For a long time now, since the expert formation of a stable government, the U.S government has had the programs and passed laws that either dealt with issues of or influenced family. Many of these family programs and laws currently in place today are often and usually debated. One of the most debated and most labored over family programs or laws are welfare.

This is because there is now a smallest amount of income so the poor no longer have the need to go out and commit crimes to attain such money.

Thursday, September 27, 2007

E commerce

It is also referred to as EC, e-commerce or ecommerce. It consists first and foremost of the distributing, buying, selling, marketing, and servicing of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. The information technology industry might see it as an electronic business application aimed at commercial transactions; in this background, it can involve electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, e-marketing, online marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), automated inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Electronic commerce typically uses electronic communications technology of the World Wide Web, at some position in the transaction's lifecycle, although of course electronic commerce often depends on computer technologies other than the World Wide Web, such as database, and e-mail, and on other non-computer technologies, such as transportation for physical goods sold via e-commerce.

Monday, September 10, 2007

A cold winter morning

I am lying on a white, sandy beach with the glowing sun beating down directly on my tanned summer body. I notice the beautiful, Puerto Rican Cabana boy heading over to replenish my newly empty Margarita glass. I look around my private beach and at the crystal clear, sparkling ocean water tempting me warmly in to its open arms. I get up from my bed on the sand, walking gradually to the water. The sand is flaming my bare feet with such passion that I speed my walk up almost into a jog. As I reach the waterfront I stop, as a falling wave is heading toward my glazing body; I step closer to be in its direct path. I move smoothly in with such grace; I prepare myself for the cool, refreshing bath. I hear an alarm bell screaming, I look around in a panic as it is hurting my ears and giving me a powerful headache. My beach is wandering away, and then it is gone. The ‘warmness my body feels is gone. I open my eyes; I am gloomy, lifeless room. My alarm clock is going off and the sound can only be compared with exhausted your fingernails across a chalkboard.

Monday, September 03, 2007


A microscope is a device for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the bare or unaided eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopy. The word microscopic means minute or very small, not noticeable with the eye unless aided by a microscope. The microscopes used in schools and homes sketch their history back almost 400 years.

Monday, August 27, 2007


A flower also recognized as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive configuration establish in flowering plants. The flower's structure contains the plant's reproductive organs, and its role is to make seeds. After fertilization, portions of the flower build up into a fruit containing the seeds. For the high plants, seeds are the next production, and serve up as the primary means by which individuals of a variety are dispersed across the scenery. The grouping of flowers on a place is called the inflorescence.

Many flowers in natural world have evolved to magnetize animals to pollinate the flower, the actions of the pollinating means contributing to the chance for genetic recombination within a dispersed plant population. Flowers commonly have glands called nectarines on their various parts that attract these birds.

Monday, August 20, 2007

Auditory clocks

For expediency, distance, telephony or blindness, auditory clocks here the time as sounds. The sound is either spoken normal language, or as auditory codes (e.g. numbers of sequential bell rings on the hour represent the number of the hour like the clock Big Ben). Most telecommunication companies also supply a Speaking clock service as well.

Monday, August 13, 2007

Donkey jacket

A Donkey jacket is a tiny buttoned coat, normally made of unlined black or dark blue woollen stuff; originally worn as a work jacket in the United Kingdom.
When used as a work jacket, it occasionally bears the name of the company which supplies the jacket, or the name of the company for which the wearer works. The jacket usually has two large hip pockets, and at times an inside poacher's pocket.
The donkey jacket is regarded as characteristic of the British manual worker.

Tuesday, August 07, 2007

Neck ring

A neck ring is a group of metal worn as an ornament around the neck of an individual. In a few African and Asian cultures multiple neck rings are worn usually to stretch the neck. The Kayan people from the country of Myanmar and Thailand begin to wear neck rings when they are children. Gradually with age the number of "brass coils” worn increases to elongate the neck. The girls of the Ndebele people of South Africa wear neck rings to signify their marriages.

Tuesday, July 31, 2007


Sunglasses may be made with either prescription or non-prescription lenses that are darkened to offer protection against bright visible light. Good quality sunglasses should also protect against ultraviolet light. Due to changes in the atmosphere, ultraviolet levels are much elevated than in the past and ultraviolet protection for eyes and skin is even more important. It is possible to have lenses that seem very dark and yet offer little ultraviolet protection. Sunglasses fluctuate greatly and many offer more style than protection.

Sunday, July 22, 2007

Clock synchronization

Clock synchronization is a problem from computer science and engineering which deals with the idea that internal clocks of several computers may be different. Even when initially set accurately, real clocks will differ after some amount of time due to clock drift, caused by clocks counting time at slightly different rates. There are several problems that occur as a consequence of rate differences and several solutions, some being more appropriate than others in certain contexts.

Sunday, July 08, 2007

A Personal portal

A Personal portal is a site on the World Wide Web that characteristically provides personalized capabilities to its visitors, given that a pathway to other content. It is intended to use distributed applications, different numbers and types of middleware and hardware to provide services from a number of different sources. In addition, business portals are intended to share collaboration in workplaces. A further business-driven requirement of portals is that the content be able to work on multiple platforms such as personal computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and cell phones.

Sunday, July 01, 2007


Grafting is a method of plant propagation extensively used in horticulture, where the tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse with those of another. It is most usually used for the propagation of trees and shrubs grown commercially. In most cases, one plant is chosen for its roots, and this is called the stock or rootstock. The other plant is chosen for its stems, leaves, flowers, or fruits and is called the scion.In stem grafting, a common grafting method, a shoot of a chosen, desired plant cultivar is grafted onto the stock of another type. In another common form called budding, a dormant side bud is grafted on the stem of another stock plant, and when it has fused successfully, it is encouraged to grow by cutting out the stem above the new bud.For successful grafting to take place, the vascular cambium tissues of the stock and scion plants must be located in contact with each other. Both tissues must be kept alive till the graft has taken, typically a period of a few weeks. Successful grafting only requires that a vascular connection takes place between the two tissues. A physical weak point often still occurs at the graft, because the structural tissue of the two distinct plants, such as wood may not fuse.

Tuesday, June 26, 2007

Applied Micro Circuits Corporation

Applied Micro Circuits Corporation is a fables semiconductor company scheming network and embedded Power Architecture, optical transport and storage solutions. They bought assets, IP and engineers concerning the PowerPC 400 microprocessors from IBM in 2004 for $227 million and they now market the processors under their own name. The deal also included access to IBM's SoC design methodology and advanced CMOS process technology.

3ware is a producer of RAID controllers and storage products. Founded as an self-governing company in 1997, it was acquired by AMCC in April 2004.This division has usually been focused on SATA and PATA RAID devices. They were one of the pioneers in implementing "multi-lane" cabling for RAID systems which greatly reduced cable difficulty in systems with many hard drives.

Saturday, June 23, 2007


A watercraft is a vehicle, vessel or craft designed to move across water for pleasure, recreation, physical exercise, commerce, transport of people and goods, and military missions. It is resulting from the term "craft" which was used as term to describe all types of water going vessels. Most watercraft would be described as either a ship or a boat. However, there are a number of craft which many people would consider neither a ship nor a boat, such as: canoes, kayaks, rafts, barges, catamarans, hydrofoils, windsurfers, surfboards (when used as a paddle board), underwater robots, torpedos and jet skis.

Sunday, June 17, 2007


Fire is a rapid oxidation procedure that creates light, heat, smoke, and releases energy in varying intensities. It is commonly used to explain either a fuel in a state of combustion or a violent, destructive and uncontrolled burning (e.g., in buildings or a wildfire). The discovery of how to make fire is considered one of humankind's most important advances, allowing higher hominids to ward off wild animals, cook food, and control their own source of light and warmth.

Monday, June 11, 2007


Nanotechnology is a pasture of applied science and technology covering a wide range of topics. The main unifying premise is the control of matter on a scale smaller than 1 micrometer, normally between 1-100 nanometers, as well as the manufacture of devices on this same length scale. It is a highly multidisciplinary field, drawing from fields such as colloidal science, device physics, and supramolecular chemistry. Much hypothesis exists as to what new science and technology might result from these lines of research. Some view nanotechnology as a marketing term that describes pre-existing lines of research applied to the sub-micron size scale.

In spite of the apparent ease of this definition, nanotechnology actually encompasses diverse lines of inquiry. Nanotechnology cuts across many disciplines, together with colloidal science, chemistry, applied physics, materials science, and even mechanical and electrical engineering. It could variously be seen as an extension of existing sciences into the nanoscale, or as a recasting of existing sciences using a newer, more recent term. Two major approaches are used in nanotechnology: one is a "bottom-up" approach where materials and devices are built from molecular components which gather themselves chemically using principles of molecular gratitude; the other being a "top-down" approach where nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control.

Wednesday, June 06, 2007

Common System Interface

The Common System Interface is a processor interconnect standard being developed by Intel, as a competitor to HyperTransport. It will replace the front-side bus for Xeon and Itanium 2 platforms. It is expected to release in 2008 and will first be used by Intel's Nehalem and Tukwila.Performance numbers for CSI are reported to be 6.4 Gig transfers per second per direction.
Many of the people that have worked on either the initial structural design of CSI or its implementation have decided to leave Intel. Some of the people include Brannon Batson, Benjamin Tsein, William Welch, Michael Pachos, and Brian Lilly .It was reported that Intel has renamed Common System Interface as "QuickPath" early May 2007.

Sunday, May 27, 2007

Historical usage of Basket

Wood, bamboo, wheat, other grasses, osiers or wicker are often used to make baskets, but they are also made today from plastic. The first baskets were natural fiber by gatherers to collect fruits, grains, nuts and other edible plant materials, as well as for holding fish by early fishing peoples. A creel is a basket made particularly to hold fish. The plant life available in a region affects the choice of material, which in turn influences the weaving technique. Rattan and other members of the Arecaceae or palm tree family, the thin grasses of temperate regions and broad-leaved tropical bromeliads each require a different method of twisting and braiding to be made into an effective basket. Although baskets were usually created to serve men in bed rather than an artistic purpose, the practice of basket making has evolved into an art.

Friday, May 18, 2007

Description of Quick Ring

The basic Quick Ring system consisted of seven serial links, six of them carrying data, and one a 50 MHz clock signal. Two physical media were specified, sets of twisted-pair copper wiring embedded in a thin plastic strip for use inside a computer, or the same signals using frequency-division multiplexing in a single fiber optic cable for longer links between machines.

The data lines were clocked at seven times the clock signal, so each clock "tick" moved 42 bits of data over the bus for a raw data rate of 2.1 Gbit/s. Ten bits of the 42 were used for signaling and control, leaving the other 32 for data, resulting in a net data transfer rate of 1.6 Gbit/s, or 200 MBytes/s.

Each Quick Ring interface enclosed two of these 200 MB/s links, one for "upstream" and one for "downstream" connections in a point-to-point ring. Since the system was not a bus, machines could talk up and downstream at the same time without interfering with other users. The drawback was that each hop over an intervening point added a latency of up to 1.3 ┬Ás.

Since Quick Ring was built in a ring topology there was no need for a dedicated switch, or router, making the system lower cost. It used a circuit switching system, in which the message path is set up before the data is sent, and once set up the connection is very lightweight. This is as opposed to packet switching, in which every message contains all of the data needed to reach the destination, this is more flexible, but adds overhead. Of the 10 bits of control data, four were used to specify a circuit number, allowing for a total of 16 devices per ring.

Sunday, May 13, 2007


Proteins are large organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is defined by a gene and encoded in the genetic code. Although this genetic code specifies 20 "standard" amino acids, the residues in a protein are often chemically altered in post-translational modification: either before the protein can function in the cell, or as part of control mechanisms. Proteins can also work together to achieve a particular function, and they often associate to form stable complexes.

Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids, proteins are essential parts of all living organisms and participate in every process within cells. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions, and are vital to metabolism. Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as the proteins in the cytoskeleton, which forms a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape. Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. Protein is also a necessary component in our diet, since animals cannot synthesis all the amino acids and must obtain essential amino acids from food. Through the process of digestion, animals break down ingested protein into free amino acids that can be used for protein synthesis.

Wednesday, May 09, 2007


A shoe is a thing of footwear worn on the foot or feet of a human, dog, cat, horse, or doll. Shoes may vary from a simple flip-flop to a multifaceted boot. Shoes may have high or low heels, although in western cultures, high heels are considered a woman's style. Shoe materials include leather or image. Athletic shoe soles may be made of rubber.
Dress and casual shoes
Casual shoes, made of leather Dress shoes are categorized by smooth and supple leather uppers, leather soles, and narrow sleek shape. Casual shoes are characterized by sturdy leather uppers, non-leather outsoles, and wide profile. Some designs of dress shoes can be worn by either gender. The majority of dress shoes have an upper covering, commonly made of leather, enclosing most of the lower foot, but not covering the ankles. This upper part of the shoe is often made without apertures or openings, but may also be made with openings or even itself consist of a series of straps, e.g. an open toe featured in women's shoes. Shoes with uppers made high to cover the ankles are also available; a shoe with the upper rising above the ankle is usually considered a boot but certain styles may be referred to as high-topped shoes or high-tops. Usually, a high-topped shoe is secured by laces or zippers; although some styles have elastic inserts to ease slipping the shoe on.

Tuesday, May 01, 2007

history of willamete valley

100 The Willamette Valley is the section in northwest Oregon in the United States that environs the Willamette River as it proceeds northward from its emergence from mountains near Eugene to its confluence with the Columbia River. One of the most creative agricultural areas of the world, the valley was the destination of choice for the emigrants on the Oregon Trail in the 1840s. It has created the cultural and political heart of Oregon since the days of the Oregon Territory, and is home to nearly 70% of Oregon's population.

The valley may be freely defined as the watershed of the Willamette, bounded on the west by the Coast Ranges, on the east by the Cascade Range. It is enclosed on the south by the Calapooya Mountains, which divide the headwaters of the Willamette from the Umpqua River valley. Because of the differing cultural and political interests, the Portland metropolitan areas, as well as the Tualatin River valley, are often disinclined in the local use of the term. Cities always considered part of the Willamette Valley are Eugene, Corvallis, Albany, and Salem.

The agricultural wealth of the valley is considered to be in no small measure a result of the Missoula Floods, which swamped the valley approximately forty times between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. The floods were caused by the episodic rupturing of the ice dam of Glacial Lake Missoula, the waters of which swept down the Columbia and flooded the Willamette Valley as far south as Eugene. The floodwaters carried rich volcanic and glacial soil from Eastern Washington, which was deposited across the valley floor when the waters subsided.

Friday, April 27, 2007


A microprocessor is a programmable component. It incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semi conducting integrated circuit (IC). The microprocessor was born by dipping the word size of the CPU from 32 bits to 4 bits, so that the transistors of its logic circuits would vigorous onto a single part. One or more microprocessors typically serve up as the CPU in a computer system, embedded system, or handheld device.

Microprocessors made probable the beginning of the microcomputer in the mid-1970s. Before this period, electronic CPUs were typically made from massive distinct switching devices (and later small-scale integrated circuits) containing the equivalent of only a few transistors. By integrating the processor onto one or a very few large-scale integrated circuit packages (containing the equivalent of thousands or millions of discrete transistors), the cost of processor power was greatly reduced. Since the dawn of the IC in the mid-1970s, the microprocessor has become the most rampant implementation of the CPU, nearly completely replacing all other forms. See History of computing hardware for pre-electronic and early electronic computers.

Tuesday, April 24, 2007

Purely Way

Purely Way is a section of the A23 trunk road in Corydon, London and has given its name to the out-of-town shopping area alongside it with a catchments area covering most of South London. It was designed as a bypass for Corydon and was opened in April 1925. In 1932 Purely Way became the first road in the United Kingdom to be lit with sodium lights.

Industry History

The IKEA chimneysCroydon Airport is located on Purely Way.

The opening of Purely Way attracted industry to the area and it became the main industrial area of Corydon. Industry attracted to the area included Redwing Aircraft Ltd, Trojan Ltd (car manufacturers) and Tizer Ltd. There were also several metal companies including Standard Steel Co, Corydon Foundry Ltd, Metal Propellers Ltd and Southern Foundries Ltd.

Corydon 'B' Power Station was built in the late 1940s and opened in 1950. It shut down in 1984, was demolished in 1991 and an IKEA store was opened on the site. The large chimneys of the power station were retained and remain a local pointer.

Wednesday, April 18, 2007


A videophone is a telephone which is able of both audio and video duplex transmission.AT&T conducted experiments and demonstrations of a "Picturephone" product and service in the early 1960s. Among the first manufacturers of commercially viable videophones was Toshiba.Videotelephony is frequently used in large corporate setups, and are supported by systems such as Cisco CallManager. Other companies such as Tandberg, Radvision, and Polycom also offer similar solutions. Videoconferencing has usually been limited to the h.323 protocol (notably Cisco's SCCP implementation is an exception), however newly a shift towards SIP implementations is seen. In accordance with the adoption of SIP telephony for home users, videotelephony is also slowly becoming available to home users.Another protocol using videophones is H.324; this allows videophones to work in regular phone lines, since the bandwidth is limited by the phone line. The quality is about fifteen Frames per second. This type of videophone is generally used because of the affordable price.Today the principles, if not the precise mechanisms of a videophone are employed by thousands of users world-wide in the form of webcam conferences using cheaply available webcams and microphones employed using software over the internet.

Monday, April 09, 2007

Willamette River

100 The Willamette River is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately 240 mi long, in northwestern Oregon in the United States. Flowing northward between the Coastal Range and Cascade Range, the river and its tributaries form a basin called the Willamette Valley containing the largest inhabitants centers of Oregon, including Portland, which sits along both sides of the river near its mouth on the Columbia. Its lush valley is fed by prolific precipitation on the western side of the Cascades, forming one of the most productive agricultural regions of North America that was the destination for many if not most of the emigrants along the Oregon Trail. The river was an important transportation route throughout much of the early history of the state, furnishing a means of conveying the vast timber and agricultural resources of the state to the outside world.


The Willamette rises in three separate forks in the mountains south and southeast of Eugene, at the southern end of the Willamette Valley. The Middle Fork and North Fork raise on the western side of the Cascades between Three Sisters south to Diamond Peak, with the Middle Fork in receipt of the North Fork northwest of Oakridge and flowing northwest from side to side the mountains to the southern end of the Willamette Valley. The Coast Fork rises in the lower mountains south of Cottage Grove, flowing north to join the Middle Fork 2 mi southeast of Eugene.

From Eugene, the joint river flows NNW across the plain of the southern Willamette Valley to Corvallis, and then follows a zigzag course past Albany and around the isolated hills in the central valley, passing west of downtown Salem. From Salem it flows north in a roundabout course across the northwest plain of the valley, reaching the hills at Newberg, where it turns sharply ENE along the hills, passing through an opening in the hills at Oregon City, the position of the Falls of the Willamette and the head of navigation. From Oregon City it flows northwest, past Lake Oswego and Milwaukie on the south edge of Portland, then passing between east and west Portland, where it is spanned by a series of urban bridges. Downstream of downtown Portland it flows northwest through the industrial port area of Portland Harbor, then splitting into two channels around Sauvie Island, both of which hook around to enter the Columbia from the west, with the main channel entering on the north edge of Portland and the smaller Multnomah Channel entering just about 15 mi NNW at St.Helens.

Monday, April 02, 2007


Ultraviolet radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength shorter than that of the able to be seen region, but longer than that of soft X-rays. It can be subdivided into near UV and tremendous or vacuum UV.

When allowing for the effects of UV radiation on human health and the surroundings, the range of UV wavelengths is often subdivided into UVA, also called Long Wave or "black light"; UVB, also called Medium Wave; and UVC, also called Short Wave or "germicidal". See 1 E-7 m for a list of objects of similar sizes.

In photolithography, in laser technology, etc., the term cavernous ultraviolet or DUV refers to wavelengths below 300nm.

The name means "beyond violet", violet being the color of the unswerving wavelengths of able to be seen light. Some of the UV wavelengths are colloquially called black light, as it is imperceptible to the human eye. Some animals, including birds, reptiles, and insects such as bees, can see into the near ultraviolet. Many fruits, flowers, and seeds situate out more strongly from the background in ultraviolet wavelengths as compared to human color vision. Many birds have patterns in their plumage that are imperceptible at usual wavelengths but seen in ultraviolet, and the urine of some animals is much easier to spot with ultraviolet.

The Sun emits ultraviolet radiation in the UVA, UVB, and UVC bands, but because of amalgamation in the atmosphere's ozone layer, 99% of the ultraviolet radiation that reaches the Earth's surface is UVA.
Ordinary glass is see-through to UVA but is opaque to shorter wavelengths. Silica or quartz glass, depending on quality, can be see-through even to vacuum UV wavelengths.

The onset of vacuum UV, 200 nm, is defined by the fact that normal air is opaque below this wavelength. This opacity is due to the strong amalgamation of light of these wavelengths by oxygen in the air. Pure nitrogen is see-through to wavelengths in the range of about 150–200 nm. This has wide practical significance now that semiconductor manufacturing processes are using wavelengths shorter than 200 nm. By working in oxygen-free gas, the apparatus does not have to be built to withstand the pressure differences necessary to work in a vacuum. Some other scientific instruments, such as circular dichroism spectrometers, are also normally nitrogen purged and operate in this spectral region.

Thursday, March 29, 2007

Beaver Coins

100 Beaver Coins, also known in Pioneer days as Beaver Money, were gold coins for a short time minted by the Provisional Government of the Oregon Territory in the not on time 1840's. The coins were obtainable in $5 and $10 dollar denominations. Their name comes from the important Beaver depicted on the face of the coins. Today these coins are quite rare and precious.

The influx of settlers into the Oregon Country produced a deficiency of circulating currency. The inhabitants at the time resorted to using gold specks or minting their own gold coins for use in trading. Many settlers began lobbying the territory's new government to correct this condition.

The Provisional Territorial Legislature at Champoeg then gave the appreciation for the Oregon Exchange Company to mint currency. Although the Oregon Exchange Company was more often than not a personal organization, the territorial government set the coin's values, authorized a mint, and chosen the officers to the mint. The mint was situated in Oregon City, Oregon.

After Oregon's administrator U.S. territory rank, the Oregon Exchange Company became an completely personal enterprise ongoing its operations until Governor Joseph Lane ruled the operation illegal.

Sunday, March 25, 2007


A clock is an instrument for measuring time.Those used for technical purposes, of extremely high accuracy, are sometimes called chronometers. A portable clock is called a watch. The clock in its most common modern form displays the hours, minutes, and sometimes seconds that pass over a twelve or twenty-four-hour period.
The world's first self-striking clock was said to be invented by Chang Yeong-Sil, a chief enginner of Korea, in Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. It was called Chagyongru, which means "self-striking clock" in Korean
The development of electronics in the twentieth century led to clocks with no clockwork parts at all. Time in these cases is measured in several ways, such as by the behaviour of quartz crystals, or the decay of radioactive elements. Even mechanical clocks contain since come to be largely powered by batteries, removing the need for winding.


A clock is an instrument for measuring time.Those used for technical purposes, of extremely high accuracy, are sometimes called chronometers. A portable clock is called a watch. The clock in its most common modern form displays the hours, minutes, and sometimes seconds that pass over a twelve or twenty-four-hour period.
The world's first self-striking clock was said to be invented by Chang Yeong-Sil, a chief enginner of Korea, in Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. It was called Chagyongru, which means "self-striking clock" in Korean
The development of electronics in the twentieth century led to clocks with no clockwork parts at all. Time in these cases is measured in several ways, such as by the behaviour of quartz crystals, or the decay of radioactive elements. Even mechanical clocks contain since come to be largely powered by batteries, removing the need for winding.

Tuesday, March 20, 2007


The peach (Prunus persica) is a tree that bears a juicy fruit of the same name. It has a single large seed enclosed in hard wood (called the "pit" or "stone"), yellow or whitish flesh, a delicate aroma, and a velvety skin. Peaches, along with cherries, plums and apricots, are stone fruits (drupes). Cultivated peaches are separated into freestone and clingstone varieties, depending on whether the flesh sticks to the pit; both kinds can be any color. Peaches with white flesh characteristically are very sweet with little acid flavor, while yellow-fleshed peaches classically have an acidic tang coupled with sweetness. Both colors often have some red on their skin. Low-acid white-fleshed peaches are the most popular kinds in China, Japan, and neighboring Asian countries, while Europeans and North Americans have historically favored the acidic, yellow-fleshed kinds.

Wednesday, March 14, 2007


Kashmir is known as heaven on the earth. In the seventeenth century the Mughal emperor Jahangir set his eyes on the valley of Kashmir. He said that if paradise is anywhere on the earth, it is here, while living in a house boat on the mesmerizing Dal Lake. The pleasure of the Mughal gardens makes every minute one spends in Kashmir a joy to the soul. In Jammu and Kashmir the most significant tourist places are Kashmir, Srinagar, Mughal gardens, Gulmarg, Pahalgam-the valley of shepherds, Jammu, Ladakh.
Because of the quite tolerable climate on the higher planes of Jammu and Kashmir, and also because of its scenic beauty and bodies of water, Jammu and Kashmir are a tourist attraction. Until a few decades ago, "Going to Kashmir" was synonymous in India with going on a honeymoon, or for a tour to a cold place during hot summers.
Some areas need a special permit for non-indians to visit.

Friday, March 09, 2007


Manga is the Japanese word for comics and print cartoons. Outside of Japan, it generally refers specifically to comics initially published in Japan. As of 2007, manga represents a multi-billion dollar global market.Manga developed from a mixture of ukiyo-e and foreign styles of drawing, and took its current form shortly after World War II. It comes primarily in black and white, except for the covers and sometimes the first few pages; in some Animanga (Anime printed in Manga style) all the pages are colored.
Popular manga are frequently adapted into anime (Japanese for animation) once a market interest has been established (Manga is sometimes mistakenly called "anime" by those not familiar with the term). Adapted stories are often modified to appeal to a more mainstream market. Although not as general, original anime is sometimes adapted into manga (such as the Gundam franchise, Neon Genesis Evangelion, Cowboy Bebop and Tenchi Muyo).

Monday, March 05, 2007

Sit flying

Sit flying is a form of locomotion obtainable to skydivers and vertical wind tunnel flyers. It describes the ability to 'fly' ones body in any direction while in a 'sit' position. It's called a 'sit' because it looks like the flyer is sitting in a chair.
The correct position for flying a sit is to orient yourself feet first in the direction of the relative wind and maintain 90-degree angle bends at the knees, hips, and shoulders. Wind from the tunnel or from free-fall should be hitting the flyer on the feet, hamstrings, bottom, and the underside of the arms. To move about relative to the tunnel or other jumpers, the flyer simply redirects the airflow the opposite direction the jumper wants to go. Newtonian mechanics then push the flyer in the preferred direction. Fall rate changes (descending faster or slower) can also be made. This is done by presenting more surface area (wide legs and arms, higher drag, slower fall rate) or less surface area (arms up or even stand up, less drag, faster fall rate) from the flyers body to the wind.

Thursday, March 01, 2007

Traditional animation

Also called cel animation, the frames of a traditionally animated movie are hand-drawn. The drawings are traced or copied onto transparent acetate sheets called cels, which are then located over a painted background and photographed one by one on a rostrum camera. Nowadays, the use of cels (and cameras) is mostly obsolete, since the drawings are scanned into computers, and digitally transferred directly to 35 mm film. The "look" of traditional cel animation is still preserved, and the character animator's work has remained essentially the same over the past 70 years. Because of the digital influence over modern cel animation, it is also known as tradigital animation.
Examples: The Lion King, Spirited Away, Les Triplettes de Belleville
Full animation
The most common style in animation, known for its realistic and often very detailed art.
Examples: All Disney feature length animated films, The Secret of NIMH, The Iron Giant
Limited animation
A cheaper process of creating animated cartoons that does not follow a "realistic" approach.
Examples: The Flintstones, Yellow Submarine
Rubber hose
The characters are usually cartoony, and the animators have a lot of artistic freedom as rubber hose animations don't have to follow the laws of physics and anatomy in the same degree as the other main styles in animation.
Examples: Early Mickey Mouse cartoons, Ren and Stimpy, Popeye
A technique where animators trace live action movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films.
Examples: Gulliver's Travels, American Pop

Friday, February 23, 2007


Erosion is the displacement of solids by the agents of wind, water or ice, by downward or down-slope movement in response to gravity or by living organisms . Erosion is well-known from weathering, which is the decomposition of rock and particles through processes where no movement is caught up, although the two processes may be concurrent.
Erosion is an intrinsic normal process but in many places it is increased by human land use. Poor land use practices include deforestation, overgrazing, unmanaged construction movement and road or trail building. wever, improved land use practices can limit erosion, using techniques like terrace-building and tree planting.A certain amount of erosion is natural and, in fact, healthy for the ecosystem. For example,
gravels repeatedly move downstream in watercourses. Excessive erosion, however, can cause problems, such as in receipt of water sedimentation, ecosystem damage and outright loss of soil.

Monday, February 19, 2007

Magnetic field in Mercury planet

Despite its slow revolving, Mercury has a relatively strong magnetic field, with a magnetic field strength 1% as strong as the Earth’s. It is potential that this magnetic field is generated in a manner similar to Earth’s, by a dynamo of circulating liquid core material. However, scientists are uncertain whether Mercury’s core could still be liquid,although it could perhaps be set aside liquid by tidal effects during periods of high orbital eccentricity. It is also probable that Mercury’s magnetic field is a remnant of an earlier dynamo effect that has now ceased, with the magnetic field becoming “frozen” in solidified magnetic materials.
Mercury’s magnetic field is physically powerful sufficient to deflect the solar wind around the planet, that creates a magnetosphere within which the solar wind does not go through. This is in difference to the situation on the Moon, which has a magnetic field too weak to stop the solar wind impacting on its surface and so lacks a magnetosphere.

Tuesday, February 13, 2007

Reality, worldviews, and theories of reality

A common slang usage would have "reality" mean "perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes toward reality," as in "My reality is not your reality." This is often used just as a colloquialism indicating that the parties to a conversation agree, or should agree, not to quibble over deeply different conceptions of what is real. For example, in a spiritual discussion between friends, one might say (attempting humor), "You might disagree, but in my reality, everyone goes to heaven.” But occasionally — and mainly in the case of those who have been exposed to certain ideas from viewpoint, sociology, literary criticism, and other fields — it is thought that there simply and factually is no reality beyond the perceptions or beliefs we each have about reality. Such attitudes are summarized in the popular statement, "Perception is reality" or "Life is how you pick out reality" and they show anti-realism, that is, the view that there is no objective reality, whether acknowledged clearly or not.

Tuesday, February 06, 2007


Software basically is the distinct image or representation of physical or material position that constitute configuration to or functional identity of a machine, usually a computer. As a substance of memory, software in principle can be changed without the alteration to the static paradigm of the hardware thus without the remanufacturing thereof. generally software is of an algorithmic form which translates into being to a progression of machine instructions. Some software, however, is of a relational form which translate into being the map of a recognition network.
Software is a program that enables a computer to achieve a specific task, as contrasting to the physical components of the system (hardware). This include application software such as a word processor, which enables a user to achieve a task, and system software such as an operating system, which enables other software to run suitably, by interfacing with hardware and with other software.
The term "software" was first used in this intellect by John W. Tukey in 1957. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all computer program. The perception of reading different sequences of instructions into the memory of a apparatus to control computations was invented by Charles Babbage as part of his difference engine. The theory that is the source for most modern software was first projected by Alan Turing in his 1935 essay Computable numbers with an application to the Entscheidungs problem.
TypesPractical computer systems partition software into three major classes: system software, programming software and application software, although the division is subjective, and often blurred.
* System software is one of the major class helps run the computer hardware and computer system. It includes working systems, device drivers, analytical tools, servers, windowing systems, utilities and more. The intention of systems software is to protect the applications programmer as much as possible from the details of theexacting computer complex being use, especially memory and other hardware features, and such accessory procedure as communications, printers, readers, displays, keyboards, etc.
* Programming software usually provide tools to support a programmer in writing computer programs and software with different programming languages in a more suitable way.The tools comprise text editors, compilers, interpreters, linkers, debuggers, and so on, An incorporated development environment (IDE) merge those tools into a software bundle, and a programmer may not need to type various command for compiling, interpreter, debugging, tracing, and etc., because the IDE typically has an sophisticated graphical user interface, or GUI.
* Application software allows humans to complete one or more explicit (non-computer related) tasks. typical applications include manufacturingautomation, business software, educational software, medical software, databases and computer games. Businesses are possibly the biggest users of application software, but approximately every field of human action now uses some form of application software. It is used tocomputerizeall sorts of functions.

Friday, January 26, 2007

Journalism Basics

Journalism is a concrete, professionally oriented major that involves gathering, interpreting, distilling, and other reporting information to the general audiences through a variety of media means. Journalism majors learn about every possible kind of Journalism (including magazine, newspaper, online journalism, photojournalism, broadcast journalism, and public relations).
That's not all, though. In addition to dedicated training in writing, editing, and reporting, Journalism wants a working knowledge of history, culture, and current events. You'll more than likely be required to take up a broad range of courses that runs the range from statistics to the hard sciences to economics to history. There would also be a lot of haughty talk about professional ethics and civic responsibility too - and you'll be tested on it. To top it all off, you'll perhaps work on the university newspaper or radio station, or possibly complete an internship with a magazine or a mass media conglomerate.