Thursday, October 30, 2008


Cognition is a concept used in different ways by different disciplines, but is generally accepted to mean the process of awareness or thought. For example, in psychology, it refers to an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions. Other interpretations of the meaning of cognition link it to the development of concepts; individual minds, groups, organizations, and even larger coalitions of entities, can be modelled as societies which cooperate to form concepts. The autonomous elements of each 'society' would have the opportunity to demonstrate emergent behavior in the face of some crisis or opportunity. Cognition can also be interpreted as "understanding and trying to make sense of the world".

Tuesday, October 21, 2008

Steel lattice

The steel lattice is the most widespread form of construction. It provides great strength, low wind resistance and economy in the use of materials. Such structures are usually triangular or square in cross-section.

When built as a stayed mast, usually the whole mast is parallel-sided. One exception is the Blaw-Knox type.

When built as a tower, the structure may be parallel-sided or taper over part or all of its height. When constructed of several sections which taper exponentially with height, in the manner of the Eiffel Tower, the tower is said to be an Eiffelized one. The Crystal Palace tower in London is an example.

Sunday, October 12, 2008

Single Message Authorisation/Clearing

Some financial networks operate a single message solution, in which a transaction is authorised and cleared via the same message.

A transaction will be authorised via a pre-authorisation step, where the merchant requests the issuer to reserve an amount on the cardholder's account for a specific time, followed by completion, where the merchant requests an amount blocked earlier with a pre-authorisation. This transaction flow in two steps is often used in businesses such as hotels and car rental where the final amount is not known, and the pre-authorisation is made based on an estimated amount. Completion may form part of a settlement process, typically performed at the end of the day when the day's completed transactions are submitted. All these messages will be sent "on-line" from the merchant acquirer to the issuing bank.