Soil, comprising the pedosphere, is located at the border of the lithosphere with the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. It consists of mineral, organic matter, as well as living organisms. Soil formation, or pedogenesis, is the combined effect of physical, chemical, biological, and anthropogenic process on soil parent material ensuing in the configuration of soil horizons.
Soil is our most important natural resources because of its position in the landscape and its dynamic, physical, chemical, and biologic functions. While the general concept of soil is well recognized, the definition of soil varies, according to the viewpoint of the discipline or occupation by means of soil as a resource.